ENG214.001 -- Topics in World Literature: Ancient to Medieval
Prof. Eileen Joy (Spring 2010)
CRITICAL ESSAY #1 -- Close Reading Critique: The Iliad
Due: Tuesday, February 23rd
Figure 1. still image from the film Troy (2003)
For your first essay--a CLOSE READING CRITIQUE exercise--develop a narrowly-defined argumentative thesis about what you see as an important aspect of the Iliad (Books 1, 9, 16, 18, 22, & 24) in relation to one of the topics listed below. Write a paper of approximately 4 typed (double-spaced) pages. NO outside sources are to be used for this paper, which should solely represent your own analytical thinking. On the other hand, the online notes I have provided for you on the syllabus can be consulted in order to help you generate ideas and refine your thinking with respect to some kind of general knowledge about the poem itself and its mythological and historical background, and you may incorporate information from these notes in your paper if you feel it is relevant to your argument. If you also want to incorporate commentary on Coppola's film Apocalypse Now, that is okay, too. The most important thing about this paper, in addition to having an argumentative thesis (that, hopefully, does not just re-state something obvious about the poem and its characters and story), is to make sure that you ground your analysis in a CLOSE reading of the poetry itself: its language, characters and plot, and descriptive details. Whatever it is you want to argue (and you have free rein to develop any argument you like; there are no "right" or "wrong" interpretations in this course, only stronger and more weakly argued ones), just be sure to connect your main observations and ideas to specific passages and details in the poem itself.
note: traditional areté [manliness, virtue] in Athens meant acting the hero -- like Jason in search of the Golden Fleece, or Hector ultimately deciding to stand firm and meet Achilles in battle even though he knows he will likely lose. A man's role was to "help his friends and harm his enemies." By so doing he earned timé [honor, public esteem] and kleos [glory, or reputation]. If he failed to help his friends -- or to harm his enemies-- he lost status. But areté also transcended gender categories and meant, loosely, "reaching your highest human potential," and using everything at your disposal to do so.
- the body
- the individual vs. the group
- power & authority
- relationships between men
- the role of the Greek gods
SOME GUIDELINES FOR WRITING
(I would like to note here that the following comprises some of my own thinking, tips culled from The Holt Handbook [6th ed.; pp. 723-26], and from Professors DeLombard's and White's "Papers: Expectations, Guidelines, Advice and Grading," available online here.)
First, Please keep in mind that when I ask you to do a close reading of a literary work in order to make an argument about what you see as one of the important aspects of that work, that you do not read to magically discover the ONE correct meaning the author has supposedly hidden between the lines. The "meaning" of a literary work is created by the interaction between a text and its readers, and therefore, most works of literature can convey many different meanings to different readers. Do not assume, however that a work can mean whatever you want it to mean; ultimately, your interpretation must be consistent with the stylistic signals, thematic suggestions, and patterns of imagery in the text. Therefore, in a close reading, whatever observation you want to to make about what you think the author/text is doing/saying, be sure to ALWAYS support your interpretation with direct reference to the text itself (both by providing brief summaries of key content and also by the use of direct quotation).
Here are some TIPS on how to go about doing a close, interpretive reading:
According to DeLombard's and White's guidelines on writing a literary analysis (see hyperlink above for their website, "Papers: Expectations, Guidelines, Advice, and Grading"), "In order to become a good interpreter of literature, you will have to make the important distinction between summary and translation, on the one hand, and interpretation or analysis, on the other. When you summarize, you repeat what the text actually says; when you translate, you explain to your audience in some detail many of the points an astute reader would reach on his or her own -- think of translating something from French into English for a person who speaks both languages. Neither summary nor translation is really a worthwhile endeavor in that neither tells the reader anything he or she did not already know. By contrast, when you interpret or analyze literature, you produce your own ideas about how the text creates meaning. In order to produce these ideas, you will need to perform close reading, to look closely at the language of the text in order to demonstrate not just what you think the text means, but more importantly how it means what you think it does. See the difference? It's an important one" (DeLombard & White).
DeLombard and White also provide some useful tips for getting started on interpreting and analyzing, rather than summarizing or translating:
- Quote the text and perform close readings of every passage you quote: discuss in concrete and specific terms the words, metaphors, images, and/or tone of the passage you are analyzing. What work does the passage you've just quoted perform, and how does it perform that work? And remember, the purpose of your close reading in each paragraph is to support the point of that paragraph, which should be clearly articulated in the topic sentence.
In carrying out your close readings, then, your goal is always to do two things:
- to demonstrate to your audience how you read the passage that you have quoted; in other words, by paying close attention to the language of the text, to explain how the passage means what you say it means
- to show how your reading supports the larger point of the paragraph.
As you reread your paper during revision, when you come to each quotation, ask yourself: "Do I interpret the language of my quotations in detailed and specific terms?" "Is it clear how my close readings support the topic sentence of the paragraph, and thus the thesis of the paper?"
- The next rule is as simple as it is helpful: always analyze literature in the present tense. Because you are interpreting a given piece of literature in the present rather than summarizing what "happened" in it, you should always stick to the present tense when interpreting. Literature, indeed, although written in the past, is still happening as you read and discuss it, right? Historical background and biographical information should be discussed in the past tense, but when writing about the literary text itself, stick to the present, which will almost force you to interpret rather than summarize.
Summary and translation reproduce what the text says. Persuasive interpretation says what the text means by showing, through close reading, how the text means what you say it means.
I expect to see a thesis near the beginning of your paper. In other words, I want you to have some kind of point you would like to make/argue in relation to the topic you have chosen. A thesis is NOT a statement in which you simply point out the obvious; for example, "Achilles is a strong warrior who lets his anger get the better of him." A thesis needs to be ARGUABLE, and the more arguable the better.
Here are some TIPS on how to develop a good thesis (also from DeLombard & White):
"Your introductory paragraph should do two things: introduce your reader to your topic and present your thesis. It is important to distinguish in your mind between your topic -- what you will write about [say, the issue of areté in the Iliad]-- and your thesis -- what you will argue or attempt to prove in relation to your topic. A thesis may be defined as an interpretation that you set forth in specific terms and propose to defend or demonstrate by reasoned argumentation and literary analysis. Your thesis, then, is the position that you are attempting to persuade your reader to accept."
"Your thesis may be more than one sentence long. If you have a good thesis, however, in most cases you will be able to articulate it in one sentence. If you require two, that's fine, so long as you make sure that the argument is coherent and that the transition from the first to the second sentence is clear and effective."
"Please carefully consider this important hint: You do not need a refined thesis in order to start writing. If you begin with a provisional thesis and then do good and careful close readings, you will often find a version of your final thesis in the last paragraph of a first draft. Integrate that version into your first paragraph and revise from there. Do not worry too much about your thesis, therefore, until after you've written out your close readings! A good final thesis should emerge from, not precede, your analyses."
Below are five steps that will help you work through the process of developing a strong thesis. First, though, please think about these three guidelines (taken from DeLombard & White):
- A good thesis is specific, not general. Avoid all sweeping generalities, about human beings, about poetry, about life, about anything "through the ages," etc. If you follow the five steps below, this should not be a problem.
- Your thesis should matter to you, and you should be able to imagine that your thesis would matter to any other member of our class. Does your thesis address important issues that the course has raised? Does it pass the "Who cares?" test?
- Finally, your thesis statement should give the reader some sense of what the structure of your paper will be. If your thesis contains two or three parts, then your reader will expect you to discuss those two or three parts in the order in which you've given them in your thesis statement.
Now here are five more steps that you can take to develop a thesis and start writing the paper (taken from DeLombard & White):
- Reread the texts you intend to discuss and take good, clear notes on passages that seem particularly relevant to the assignment.
- Keeping the topic in mind, look over these notes and then select the one specific thing that grabs you the most, the one particular image or metaphor, or limited set of images or metaphors, about which you feel in your gut that you have the most to say.
- Next, using your notes make a list of every instance of that image or metaphor, and then from that list choose the two or three passages that call out most loudly for interpretation.
- Following my suggestions on close reading above, write out your interpretations of the instances that you've chosen, dedicating one rough paragraph to each. Remember, your goal here is to say not just what you think your passages mean, but rather to show how they mean what you think they mean. What work do they perform, and how do they perform it?
- Finally, look at what you've written and let your thesis emerge out of your interpretations, out of your ideas concerning the work that your image or metaphor, or set of images or metaphors, performs in your texts.
- Give your paper a creative, interesting title.
- Combine paraphrase, summary, and quotation with your own interpretation, weaving quotations from the poem smoothly into your paper.
- When quoting lines and passages from the Iliad, cite book and line numbers: "Anger, be now your song, immortal one" (1.1).
- Avoid unnecessary plot summary. Your goal is to argue a thesis and to support that argument with pertinent details from the work itself. When plot development supports a point you want to make, then a very brief summary is acceptable. But plot summary alone is NO substitute for analysis.
Below you will find five outstanding thesis statements for The Iliad by Homer that can be used as essay starters or paper topics. All five incorporate at least one of the themes found in The Iliad and are broad enough so that it will be easy to find textual support, yet narrow enough to provide a focused clear thesis statement. These thesis statements offer a short summary of The Iliad by Homer in terms of different elements that could be important in an essay. You are, of course, free to add your own analysis and understanding of the plot or themes to them for your essay. Using the essay topics below in conjunction with the list of important quotes from The Iliad at the bottom of the page, you should have no trouble connecting with the text and writing an excellent essay.Be sure to also look at the PaperStarter entry on The Odyssey, also by Homer.
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #1: The Justification and Glorification of War in The Iliad
The backdrop and crux of action in The Iliad is war. In a sense, it seems as if Homer is glorifying war in “The Iliad” by focusing so much on it and by elevating certain fighters as heroes while minimizing losses and tragedies. Even the gods are not equal to one another in this time of war. While some gods are praised for their valor, others are criticized for their passivity and pacific preferences. By examining the attitudes toward war in The Iliad, the writer makes a case for situations in which war might be justified according to Homer.Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #2: The Vice of Pride in The Iliad by Homer
Often, what makes a tale engaging is not a character who is admirable and good, but one who is profoundly flawed. It is through such a flaw or an irremediable vice that the reader begins to understand the nature of the human condition. One of the character flaws that is prominent in The Iliad is the vice of pride. Achilles, suffering from a profound and persistent bout of hubris, is so filled with pride that he makes decisions that are literally fatal for one of his dear friends. In this essay, the problems of pride are examined, and the degree to which Achilles overcomes this vice is analyzed.
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #3: The Role of Women in The Iliad
In many ways, the setting and the action of The Iliad seems like a man’s world. There are very few mortal females who play important roles in the epic. The female gods, however, seem to be more powerful than their male counterparts. By comparing and contrasting the roles of female mortals and female gods in The Iliad, we can develop an idea of what Homer considered the proper place for women during a time of war. Although we may find his ideas outdated today, they were entirely reflective of his own historical and social epoch.
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #4: Supernatural Superstition in The Iliad by Homer
The roles that the gods play in The Iliad are central to the development and denouement of the plot. In a time of war, the gods seem to be more important than ever. They intercede on behalf of mortals and are rarely, if ever, neutral. In fact, many of the gods take sides in the war due to past slights and grudges that they harbor against certain mortal groups. In this paper, the writer will examine the different roles that the gods play in The Iliad, and the different meanings that they hold for the mortal characters.
Thesis Statement 5: Achilles as a Likeable Character
Because Achilles is so prideful, his decisions end up hurting other characters, even mortally so. His decision to permit Patroclus to go to battle in his own armor, for instance, results in Patroclus’s death. Despite his character flaw, Achilles is ultimately a likeable character. The reader is able to feel empathy for Achilles. Pride, after all, is not so uncommon a flaw as to be unfamiliar to the reader, and we have all made mistakes—even drastic ones—that we regret yet have difficulty admitting.
A few articles that are related to the thesis statements and important quotes from “The Iliad” by Homer listed here include: Masculinity and the Warrior Culture of The IliadThe Theme of Father Son Relationships in The Iliad and The OdysseyCharacter and Divine Influence in The Aeneid and Iliad
This list of important quotations from The Iliad by Homer will help you work with the essay topics and thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims. All of the important quotes from The Iliad listed here correspond, at least in some way, to the paper topics above and by themselves can give you great ideas for an essay by offering quotes and explanations about other themes, symbols, imagery, and motifs than those already mentioned and explained. Aside from the thesis statements above, these quotes alone can act as essay questions or study questions as they are all relevant to the text in an important way. All quotes contain page numbers as well. Look at the bottom of the page to identify which edition of The Iliad they are referring to.
“I tried to dissuade you, but you gave in to your pride and dishonored a great man whom the immortals esteem." (Book 9, ll. 113-115)
“[S]ince I did succumb to a fit of madness, I want to make substantial amends." (Book 9, ll. 124-125)
“I hereby announce my reparations: …ten gold bars…,a dozen… Solid, prizewinning racehorses who have won me a small fortune, and seven women who do impeccable work…." (Book 9, ll. 126-131)
“Father Zeus, if I have ever helped you in word or deed among the immortals, grant me this prayer…." (Book 1, ll. 533-535)
“[W]e two, Pallas Athena and I, have taken oaths among all the immortals never to ward off doom for the Trojans, not even when the whole city goes up in flames…." (Book 20, ll. 319-322)
“You actually like fighting and war…." (Book 1, l. 187)
“[In this war,] there is no end in sight, nor has there ever been." (Book 1, l. 133)
“Think of yourself, of the regret you will feel for harm that is irreparable. This is the last chance to save your countrymen." (Book 9, ll. 252-254)
“His heart still hoped to win glory…." (Book 12, l. 428)
“Zeus and all gods: grant that this my son may become, as I am, foremost among Trojans, brave and strong…." (Book 6, ll. 500-502)
Be sure to also look at the PaperStarter entry on The Odyssey, also by Homer.
Reference: Homer. The Iliad. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997.