THE EFFECT OF BULLYING ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EDO STATE
The project consist of five (5) chapters among the important content of chapter one include the introduction, background to the study, statement of problems, limitation of t he study, definition of terms and purposes of study. All these are some of the important issues discussed in the chapter. Chapter two was devoted to literature review, where different theories were put to proper explanation. Such theories as developmental theory and other theories. Facts and figures of bullying were also included in this chapter. Chapter three focuses on methodology of data gathered. Chapter four dealt on the analysis of data and interpretation of results, while chapter five dealt with the conclusion, summary, and recommendations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope and delimitation
Definition of terms
Validity and Reliability of instrument
Administration of the questionnaires
Method of data analysis
Analysis of data
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In schools, bullying occurs in all areas. It can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, thought it more often occurs in recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and waiting for buses, classes that require group work or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consist of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders, who, in some cases want to avoid becoming the next victim. School bullying is a widespread issue that affects secondary school students in three essential parts of their lives; psychologically, educationally and professionally. Bullying is a sort of aggressive behaviour against others such as, verbal by calling nasty names, physical by kicking, pushing or tripping up and social by everyone stopped talking to you.
Academic achievement is the first aspect which influences bullying at school. therefore, bullied children live within fear, self-blame, feel weak and it affects their personality traits and self-confidence, so this situation makes them unable to study well and they might hate going to school. Furthermore, they will lose their opportunities to participate with others or enjoy school activities. Hence, they will gain less academic performance and low educational attainment. There is a strong relationship between bullying and school quality such as class size, lack of library, sports facilities. Both bullies and victims feel more negative about school, and persistent bullying may lead to stress and depression. Bullying can lead to anxiety, low self-esteem, hopelessness and isolation. Children miss lessons or are scared to attend school. They lose concentration when they do attend. Some of the effects last long after the bullying, until they are adults.
One adverse effect of bullying is that it also leads to suicide. While suicide is rare in bullied children, the other effects of bullying are also devastating and last well beyond the time when the child is actually bullied. Many schools have a zero tolerance policy towards bullying, but sometimes have difficulty identifying the victims and the abusers because children are afraid to come forward. Bullying causes long-term problems such as depression and anxiety. In his essay “The long term effects of bullying”, psychologist Mark Dombeck relays his own bullying experiences as a child, as well as the experience of his patients and then, asserts that the anger, anxiety, and depression of that moment often lingers into adulthood, causing problems with keeping a job, forming relationship and even continued victimization in abusive relationship or work environment.
Students who are bullied cannot concentrate in schools, so their grades may be a warning sign that a student is being bullied. A child’s grade may also suffer if he or she misses a lot of school due to bullying. Children who are bullied will complain of headaches, stomachaches, and overall fatigue. This issues are usually caused by mental anguish that manifest in physical ailments. Students who are bullied often use physical complaints to get out of school. additionally, they may avoid infectious from holding crime during the day. A particularly unfortunate effect of bullying is that some children who are bullied go on to victimize and harass other children. In the same way that some student begin to bully at school because they are bullied at home, children who are bullied at school will begin to look for children more vulnerable than they are to bully. It is an effort to exert any power they may have over someone more vulnerable. A bullied children, may, at the demand of his own bully become a bully to another child.
In the light of this problem, the study is designed to assist students, teachers, parents, and concerned bodies on how to avoid bullying in some selected secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
This research is aimed at finding the causes and proposing solutions to bullying in the school environment. The problem will investigate into bullying by some set of students and the victims. Whether there are better supervisions during recess, launch time, and break time, whether there are class rules against bullying and class meetings. Whether there are creative solutions to helps students by classroom teachers, whether there are talks with targets, bullies and their parents.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Having examined the problem to be investigated in the study, it is imperative to state the purpose of this study, hence these include;
i. To find out the negative impact of bullying on students in schools in Edo State.
ii. To find out whether students in Edo State are really bullied in schools.
iii. To find out why the students are bullied.
iv. To make recommendations on the ways to stop bullying.
v. To find out the extent to which it has affected the academic performance in Edo State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research will enable those concerned know how to deal with the problem of bullying and its obvious consequences on school children. These include;
i. It will enable the victims know why they are bullied and how to avoid being bullied.
ii. Schools in Edo State will now adopt measures stated to avoid bulling in their schools.
iii. The effects of bullying on students in Edo State will be better solved in the overall academic performance enhanced.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project hopes to provide answers to the following questions;
1. Is there any difference between violence and school bullying?
2. Can academic achievement take place without bullying?
3. Does bullying affect students performance in schools?
4. Does supervision reduce the effects of bullying?
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study includes ten (10) students from ten (10) schools that are mixed secondary schools. The f acts obtained will enable the researcher to see if some students are more bullied than others and the effects on the students.
1. Osemwende Senior Secondary School.
2. Joseph High School
3. Mattphilo Secondary School
4. Christ Mission School
5. Rezheights high School
6. Sound Mentality High School
7. Charity high School
8. Great Love High School
9. Gold high School
10. Sunlight High School.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bullying: Bullying is the process of using aggressive behaviour manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behaviour is habitual and involves an imbalance of power.
Academic Performance: is the outcome of education- the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educatgional goals.
Victim: Is the person who has been hurt.
Depression: This is a mental state in which you are sad and feel that you cannot enjoy anything because your situation is so difficult and unpleasant.,
Concentration: this involves giving all your attention to it.
Vulnerable: Someone who is vulnerable is weak and without protection with the result that they are easily hurt physically or emotionally.
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Children can be cruel and it is not uncommon for grade school students to come home in tears after someone called them a name on the bus ride home. Unfortunately, many parents do not understand the potentially damaging effects of bullying not only on a child’s confidence and self-esteem but also on his academic performance.
Shocking Statistics About Bullying
According to StopBullying.gov, a website managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, nearly 50% of students in grades 4 through 12 experienced bullying within a given month and more than 70% of students admit to having seen bullying occur in their school. Verbal and social bullying are the two most common types, including things like name calling, teasing, spreading rumors, stealing belongings, sexual comments and gestures, or physical violence. Physical bullying happens less often than social bullying and cyberbullying, though it is becoming increasingly prevalent, is still less common.
While many people assume that a little bit of bullying is harmless – it may even be helpful for the child to teach them how to stick up for themselves. In reality, however, an estimated 160,000 children miss school on any given day due to fear of bullying by other students. Every day, more than 280,000 students are physically attacked in schools and one out of ten students who drops out of school mentions repeated bullying as a factor. Bullying can have a serious impact on a child’s educational experience, and not just by causing him or her to miss school. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that bullying has a negative impact on a child’s academic performance.
Results of a UCLA Case Study
In 2010, the results of a UCLA study were published in the Journal of Early Adolescence. This study involved 2,300 middle school students in eleven different Los Angeles public schools as well as their teachers. The students themselves were asked to rank the amount they were bullied on a four-point scale and to make note of which students in their classes were bullied the most. The teachers were asked to rate the level of engagement and academic performance for their students. After collecting data over the course of three years, the results were studied and published in 2010.
According to this UCLA study, Jaana Juvonen, a professor of psychology at UCLA and lead author of the study, bullying and low academic achievement are frequently linked. Juvonen is quoted saying, “students who are repeatedly bullied receive poorer grades and participate less in class discussions… students may get mislabeled as low achievers because they do not want to speak up in class for fear of getting bullied”. Juvenon also remarked that, “Once students get labeled as ‘dumb,’ they get picked on and perform even worse”.
Following this line of thinking, it is easy to see how this cycle might become self-perpetuating. Students who are bullied show less academic improvement due to a fear of standing out. As a result, teachers often identify those students as low achievers or unmotivated learners. These students may then receive less attention from teachers which only pushes them further down the academic rankings in their school. After reviewing the results of the study, Juvenon suggests that perhaps the best way to reduce bullying is to provide academic support for low-performing students.
The Impact on Students and Bullies
According to the Michigan Association of School Administrators, the effects of bullying extend far beyond the academic scope. Students who are repeatedly bullied may experience physical symptoms like stomach pains, headaches, and trouble sleeping. These side effects may pair with anxiety about going to school or participating in class which only leads to further loss of interest and reduced academic performance. Students who are bullied often exhibit low self-confidence, frequently experiencing depression, suicidal thoughts, and even violent outbreaks
You may be surprised to learn that students who bully other students also experience some negative side effects. For example, research suggests that students who bully are more likely to engage in violent behavior, to steal or vandalize property, to smoke, to drink, to report poor grades, and to carry a gun. The results of multiple long-term research studies suggests that these students are also more likely to commit serious crimes later in life. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to spot a bully. Bullies can be some of the students with the highest social skills or the best grades – they may even be good at ingratiating themselves with administrators, teachers, and other adults. When it is difficult to identify the bully, it is difficult for the school to take action.
What Can Schools Do to Reduce Bullying?
Once bullying becomes a problem in a school it can be difficult to eradicate – in fact, you may never get rid of it entirely. There are, however, certain steps that educators and parents can take to minimize bullying in their schools. The first step in reducing bullying is to increase awareness by providing education about what bullying looks like. Bullying can occur at any grade level and it is imperative that teachers and staff have a sound definition and that they are able to identify bullying when it occurs. It is important that the focus be placed on the negative behaviors, not only on the students who exhibit those behaviors. Students must come to understand the consequences of their behaviors and why they are wrong.
Once the school has created a sound definition to identify bullying behavior, a set of rules and policies must be put in place and enforced. It must be made clear to students, teachers, and faculty that bullying behavior will not be tolerated and there should be clear consequences for those who break the rules. Just as important as it is to identify and punish bullying behavior, however, it is also important that the school reward positive behaviors. The school should strive to create a safe and healthy environment for all students by rewarding those who provide a good example of the school’s policies in action.
National Bullying Prevention Center
While it is important that individual schools take a stand against bullying, it is also important that the issue gain national attention. The National Bullying Prevention Center was founded in 2006 and it is the goal of the organization to affect social change in order to render bullying no longer acceptable as a childhood rite of passage. This center is run by PACER, a center for children with disabilities. PACER offers a number of resources for teachers, parents, and students including and online information portal, a website for teens to become involved in the anti-bullying campaign, and an educational website for elementary school students.
Not only does PACER offer online resources to help schools, parents, and students in the fight against bullying, but they also sponsor National Bullying Prevention Month which occurs in October each year. During this month, communities across the nation gather together to raise awareness of bullying prevention, putting on community events and offering educational opportunities. The year 2016 will mark the 10-year anniversary of National Bullying Prevention Month and there are a number of special events being planned including Unity Day, community walks/runs against bullying, and a number of educational activities for schools, parents, and students of all ages across the nation.
Putting an end to bullying is not something that can happen overnight and it isn’t something that can be achieved through the work of a single individual. In order to put an end to bullying, teachers and parents must come together with students to create a culture of tolerance and acceptance in their school. Only when students learn to respect and accept each other will bullying become reduced.